When you imagine an apocalypse, what comes to mind? Probably images of destruction: ruined buildings, cities devoid of living people, a permeating sense of sadness and loss. In reality, these are all things we fear. Yet, the apocalyptic is one of the most prominent genres in Japanese pop culture. Why is that so?
Prewar Origins: Natural Disasters, Mono no Aware and Mappō
Contrary to popular belief, Japanese culture was suffused with imaginations of the apocalyptic before postwar Japan. That does not mean to say that the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among other disasters, did not propagate an intense focus on the genre. It merely asserts that the concern had already been established.
To start off, Japan as a nation has had its fair share of natural disasters. The country is located near two converging tectonic plates and is at the edge of the Pacific Ocean. This means that Japan has constantly been subjected to a number of typhoons, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and earthquakes over the course of its history. In short, the destruction associated with those natural disasters had already become a part of Japanese culture over time. A great example of this would be The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai, the image of a giant wave towering over Mt. Fuji being one of the most popular images associated with Japan today.
Another one of the earlier fundamental elements of the apocalyptic exclusive to Japanese culture is the concept of Mono no Aware. The philosophy revolves around the awareness of impermanence. This was developed in the Heian period, when a scholar named Motoori Norinaga wrote a critique on the famous Tale of Genji (Yoda). His critique was the basis for the literary philosophy, which ended up being a major influence in Japanese culture.
The concept of Mappō is also an apocalyptic doctrine that has been present since Japan’s Kamakura Period. As Susan Napier states, “Mappō revolves around the idea of a destroyed word being saved by a religious figure, who in this case was the Maitreyea Buddha” (252). One of the best examples that has demonstrated this concept in Japanese popular culture was Hayao Miyazaki’s Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind, where Nausicaa posed as the messianic figure that diverted the strife between humans and insects of a toxic jungle.
Postwar Origins: Unnatural Disasters and the Creation of Kaiju Eiga
Undoubtedly, Japan’s fascination with the apocalyptic grew exponentially postwar. Japan is the only country that has ever been subjected to atomic attack, and many aspects of its pop culture were influenced by such events.
Gojira, the iconic monster that decimated Tokyo in films of the postwar era, was a creative response to the unnatural disasters that wrecked Japan in 1945 and 1954. The Lucky Dragon incident of 1954, in which the United States’ Atomic Energy Commission set off a thermonuclear bomb near a Japanese fishing boat, brought back the fear associated with nuclear destruction (Szczepanski).
Such incidents, including elements that were present in Japanese culture before World War Two, are good reason to support why the apocalyptic genre is and continues to be a significant theme in Japanese popular culture.
Gojira’s creation led to the popularity of the monster film genre in Japan, or the kaiju eiga. According to Gyan Prakash, kaiju eiga are a result of “’mass trauma that exists over the use of nuclear weapons and the possibility of future nuclear wars’ while also reveling in the aesthetics of destruction….the peculiar beauties to be found in wreaking havoc, in making a mess” (107).
With the continual presence of natural disasters in Japan and the foundations of Mono no Aware and Mappō doctrine already in place, the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as the Lucky Dragon incident, set the stage for the rise of the apocalyptic genre in Japanese popular culture.
1. Godzilla spawned the beginning of the kaiju eiga genre in Japan. Do you think the 2014 reboot was influenced primarily by the disaster at Fukushima (addressing a grand narrative) or because we just want to see big monsters fight it out (Azuma’s database)?
2. Do you think that the apocalyptic genre has changed over time? For example, it is said that the genre has become more optimistic in recent years, compared to the nihilistic qualities of the apocalyptic genre in the 1970’s and 80’s.
Napier, Susan Jolliffe. Anime from Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Prakash, Gyan. Noir Urbanisms: Dystopic Images of the Modern City. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Szczepanski, Kallie. “Lucky Dragon Incident | Bikini Atoll Tests and Japanese Fishermen.” http://asianhistory.about.com/od/japan/p/Lucky-Dragon-Nuclear-Incident.htm.
Yoda, Tomiko. “Fractured Dialogues: Mono No Aware and Poetic Communication in The Tale of Genji.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies Vol. 59, no. No. 2 (1999).