Environment

Japanese

I am researching Japan’s environmental problems. In Japan, during the period of rapid financial growth following WWII, there was large-scale industrialization. Various factories were built, and so, the economy changed for the better. However, at the same time, the amount of environmental pollution in Japan also rose. At first, factory directors ignored the problem of environmental pollution. But, starting in the 1990s, environmental protection became an important part of Japanese society.

When I went to Japan, I immediately understood that environmental protection was an important aspect of society. For example, in the Japanese airport, places with trash cans all have five receptacles. That is different from airports in America. One trashcan was for paper, there was another for bottles, and yet another for glass. In the tiny kitchens of Japanese people, there are also 5 different trash receptacles. I went to Japan and did a home-stay, so now, I understand the importance of environmental protection to Japanese people. Therefore, I am researching Japan’s environmental problems.

YouTube Preview Image

Timeline:

  • 1878-1912: Environmental pollution first becomes a concern with the modernization and industrialization associated with the Meiji period
  • 1956: Drainage from chemical factory causes methyl mercury poisoning, or Minamata Disease
  • 1967: Basic Law on Environmental Pollution Control
  • 1971: Environment Agency established
  • 1972: Nature Conservation Law passed
  • 1992: Rio Summit- UN conference on environment and development
  • 1993: Basic Environment Law enacted. Goal: assure good environment for future generations
  • 1997: Kyoto Protocol- international environmental protection agreement made by UN
  • 2001: Environment Agency is promoted to Ministry of the Environment- has more governmental influence
  • Present: Current major issues include- global warming, preservation of the ozone layer, water and soil, waste management and recycling, conservation of the natural environment, and participation in international cooperation

Linkography:

Japanese Reaction to Global Warming

They say the earth is changing and becoming warmer right now. If we do nothing, the earth’s temperature will rise by 2 degrees by the year 2100. And, unfortunately, the water level of the sea will also rise by about 50 cm. Because of this, how to prevent warming has become a world-wide problem. Every year since 1992, international meetings have been held to discuss this problem. In 1997, Japan also had one of these types of meetings.

There are various causes for warming, but about 64% can be attributed to carbon dioxide. In a 1994 investigation, Japan was the world’s 4th largest contributor of carbon dioxide. And, from 1992-1994 in Japan, the amount of carbon dioxide rose 7%.

This increase in carbon dioxide was the reason that Japanese people changed their lifestyle. Before, refrigerators and televisions were widely used; people using ovens, dryers, and other types of electrical appliances were numerous. Moreover, at supermarkets and department stores, when people bought vegetables, fruits, meat or other such items, people wrapped them in plastic and put them in plastic bags. In reality, within our lives, it seems as if the carbon dioxide we give off is 45% of the total amount of pollution-causing carbon dioxide. In order to prevent warming, countries, factories, large companies and so on are not helpless. We must change our individual lives one-by-one in order to affect change. You may say it is convenient and comfortable (to continue on as we have been) but we should aim to not overuse cars and electric appliances. If we do not do this, we will not be able to protect the world.

A Brief History of Japanese Environment

  • Article describing history of government involvement in environmental protection.
  • 環境庁が環境保護の法律をした記事です。

Japan Environmental Problems

  • Main environmental problems in Japan’s society
  • 日本社会について、一番大切な環境問題。

World Environmental Problems

  • Summary of basic environmental problems facing the world
  • 地球の環境問題の要約。

Entry contributed by Cara Ferraro

Japan Top 5 songs

  • 1995Singles
    DREAMS COME TRUE
    :『LOVE LOVE LOVEArashi ga kuru
    H Jungle With t
    :『WOW WAR TONIGHT Tokiniwa Okoseyo Movement
    Hukuyama Masaharu
    :『HELLO
    Mr.Children
    :『Tomorrow never knows
    Mr.Children
    :『Seesaw game Yuukanna Koi no Uta
  • 1995Album
    DREAMS COME TRUE
    :『DELICIOUS
    trf
    :『dAnce to positive
    Yumi Matsutoya:『THE DANCING SUN
    ZARD
    :『forever you
    Maki Ohguro:『LA.LA.LA
  • 1996Singles
    Mr.Children
    :『Namonaki shi
    globe
    :『DEPARTURES
    Kubota Toshinobu with NAOMI CAMPBEL:『LALALA LOVE SONG
    Spitz:『cherry
    Mr.Children
    :『Hana-Mémento-Mori-
  • 1996Album
    globe
    :『globe
    Namie Amuro:『SWEET 19 BLUES
    B’z
    :『LOOSE
    Maki Ohguro:『BACK BEATs #1
    MY LITTLE LOVER
    :『evergreen
  • 1997Single
    Namie Amuro:『CAN YOU CELEBRATE?
    KinKi Kids
    :『Garasu no Syounen
    Le Couple
    :『Hidamari no shi
    globe
    :『FACE
    SPEED
    :『STEADY
  • 1997Album
    GLAY
    :『REVIEW-BEST OF GLAY
    Mr.Children
    :『BOLERO
    globe
    :『FACES PLACES
    JUDY AND MARY
    :『THE POWER SOURCE
    ZARD
    :『ZARD BLEND SUN & STONE
  • 1998Single
    GLAY
    :『Yuuwaku
    SMAP
    :『Yozora no Mukou
    SPEED
    :『my graduation
    BLACK BISCUITS
    :『 ‎Timing
    GLAY
    :『SOUL LOVE
  • 1998Album
    B’z
    :『B’z The Best “Pleasure”
    B’z
    :『B’z The Best “Treasure”
    Every Little Thing
    :『Time to Destination
    Kawamura Ryuichi
    :『Love
    Yumi Matsutoya:『Neue Musik
  • 1999Sigles
    Hayami kentaroShigemori AyumiHimawari KidsDango gatsyoudan:『dango 3 kyoudai
    GLAY
    :『Winter,again
    Hamasaki Ayumi:『A
    Sakamoto Ryuichi:『Ura BTTB
    Utada Hikaru:『Automatictime will tell12cm)』
  • 1999Album
    Utada Hikaru
    :『First Love
    ZARD
    :『ZARD BEST The Single Collection kiseki
    globe
    :『CRUISE RECORD 1995-2000
    SPEED
    :『MOMENT
    L’Arc
    enCiel:『ark
  • 2000Singles
    Southern All Stars
    :『TSUNAMI
    Fukuyama Masaharu:『Sakurazaka
    Utada Hikaru
    :『Wait & See ‎Risk
    Mai Kuraki:『Love, Day After Tomorrow
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『SEASONS
  • 2000Album
    Mai Kuraki:『delicious way
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『Duty
    Shiina Ringo
    :『Syouso strip
    MISIA
    :『LOVE IS THE MESSAGE
    DREAMS COME TRUE
    :『DREAMS COME TRUE GREATEST HITS “THE SOUL”
  • 2001Singles
    Utada Hikaru
    :『Can You Keep A Secret?
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『M
    CHEMISTRY
    :『PIECES OF A DREAM
    Kuwata Keisuke:『Naminori Jonny
    Morning Musume
    。:『Renai Revolution 21
  • 2001Album
    Utada Hikaru
    :『Distance
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『A BEST
    Southern All Stars
    :『Ballad3 ‎the album of LOVE
    GLAY
    :『DRIVE-GLAY complete BEST
    Morning Musume
    。:『Best! Morning Musume1
  • 2002Singles
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『H
    Utada Hikaru
    :『traveling
    Hajime Chitose
    :『Wadatumi no ki
    Dragon Ash
    :『Life goes on
    GLAY
    :『Way of Difference
  • 2002Album
    Utada Hikaru:『DEEP RIVER
    Hamasaki Ayumi:『I am…
    MONGOL800:『MESSAGE
    MISIA
    :『MISIA GREATEST HITS
    Oda Kazumasa:『Jicou best
  • 2003Singles
    SMAP
    :『Sekai ni Hitotu dakeno Hana
    Hukuyama Masaharu:『NijiMimawariSorega subetesa
    Utada Hikaru:『COLORS
    Moriyama Naotaro:『Sakura
    RUI
    :『Tsuki no sizuku
  • 2003Album
    CHEMISTRY
    :『Second to None
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『RAINBOW
    B’z
    :『The Ballads ‎Love & B’z
    Moriyama Naotaro
    :『TOP OF THE POPS
    BoA
    :『VALENTI
  • 2004Singles
    Hirai Ken
    :『Hitomi wo dojite
    Mr.Children
    :『Sign
    Hirahara Ayaka
    :『Jupiter
    ORANGE RANGE
    :『Hana
    Mr.Children
    :『TenohiraKurumi
  • 2004Album
    Utada Hikaru
    :『Utada Hikaru SINGLE COLLECTION VOL.1
    Mr.Children
    :『Shifuku no oto
    Queen
    :『QueenJewels Veryー・BestofQueen
    EXILE
    :『EXILE ENTERTAINMENT
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『Memorial address
  • 2005Singles
    Shyuji to Akira
    :『Seisyun Amigo
    Ketumeishi
    :『Sakura
    Mr.Children
    :『Yojigen Four Dimensions
    ORANGE RANGE
    :『* ‎Asterisk
    GLAY×EXILE
    :『SCREAM
  • 2005Album
    ORANGE RANGE
    :『musiQ
    ketumeishi
    :『Ketunopolis4
    Hirai Ken
    :『SENTIMENTALovers
    Def Tech
    :『Def Tech
    EXILE
    :『PERFECT BEST
  • 2006Singles
    KAT-TUN
    :『Real Face
    Remioromen:『Cona Yuki
    Shyuji to Akria:『Seisyun Amigo
    Yamashita Tomohisa:『Daite Senyorita
    KAT-TUN
    :『SIGNAL
  • 2006Album
    Hiraiken
    :『Ken Hirai 10th Anniversary Complete Single Collection ’95-’05 歌バカ』
    Kota Kumi
    :『BEST ‎second session
    Kobukuro:『ALL SINGLES BEST
    Def Tech
    :『Catch The Wave
    B’z
    :『B’z The Best “Pleasure II”
  • 2007Singles
    Akikawa Masahumi
    :『Sen no kazeni natte
    Utada Hikaru
    :『Flavor Of Life
    Kobukuro
    :『Tubomi
    Arashi
    :『Love so sweet
    KAT-TUN
    :『Keep the faith
  • 2007Album
    Mr.Children
    :『HOME
    Koda Kumi
    :『Black Cherry
    Kobukuro
    :『ALL SINGLES BEST
    Avril Lavigne:『BestofSing
    Hamasaki Ayumi
    :『A BEST 2 -WHITE-
  • 2008Singles
    Arashi
    :「truthKazeno Mukouhe
    Arashi
    :「One Love
    Southern All Stars
    :「I AM YOUR SINGER
    GReeeeN
    :「Kiseki
    Shyuchishin
    :「Shyuchishin
  • 2008Album
    EXILE
    :『EXILE LOVE
    Amuro Namie:『BEST FICTION
    Kobukuro
    :『5296
    EXILE
    :『EXILE CATCHY BEST
    Utada Hikaru
    :『HEART STATION

 

Eugene Park Video

YouTube Preview Image

Park, Eugene

Post Bubble Culture

Although the economy have sunk greatly during the post bubble period, the music of Japan seemed to culturaly prosper.  New genres of music rose such as Visual-kei, a rock band with an emphasis on the ‘visual’ appearance of artists (ex: X-Japan), and Sibuya-kei, stylish mixture of house, bosa nova and other musical components (ex: M-flo).

Unlike other genres of music, the pop/idol music of Japan during this era was quite much dominated by the female artists; Artsit like Utada Hikaru (left), and Aiko gained universal pupolarity regardless age groups and genders.

Post Bubble Japan

During the heyday of the Japanese bubble economy, Japan’s rock scene saw the birth of a novel genre of music known as visual kei. The rebellious and shocking nature of visual kei, that was simultaneously a sound and a subculture, served to prelude the popping of the bubble.

With the fall of the inflated economy, Japanese rock saw a meteoric rise, an upswelling in popularity that visual kei accompanied. As witnessed in the States after the post-stagflation recession in the early 80s, rock music represented one of many avenues for people to channel their disillusion and discontent, either personally through the sound or vicariously through the subculture. In this context visual kei was essentially symbolism, representing many feelings: severance between one’s identity and the traditions of the past, honesty of expression in a society where pursuit of economic success had been a facade, the futility of social and artistic restraint, etc.

The picture here is of the guitar of former X Japan lead guitarist Matsumoto Hideto, better known by his stage name: hide. hide died in 1998, though whether by accident or suicide no one is certain. The shot was taken 9 years later at a show during X Japan’s resurgence, where the guitar occupied the same spot on stage that hide would’ve in the past. The lovingly decorated guitar speaks to the fact that visual kei was more of an idea than a fashion and that it was an entire avenue of expression for musicians and fans alike. Although visual kei no longer enjoys the mainstream popularity of the 90s, the idea endures in the underground scene, carrying the same ideas that inspired music since its inception.

Rock Music

日本語

Rock music in Japan began in the 1960s. With influences from bands like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, Japanese kayoukyoku evolved into rock. Although rock music has been in Japan for long time, during the post-bubble recession, its popularity suddenly skyrocketed. On top of that, during this period music in general made its way into various other media. For instance, music appeared as theme songs for anime and drama. Because of this, much of Japanese entertainment culture is affected by music.

To young people, music is a reflection of one’s own self. Thus, music is a part of many subcultures. For example, anime otaku listen to the theme songs of their favorite anime. Naturally, idol otaku will listen to their idol’s songs, and imitate their idol’s style. From migrant workers to hikikomori, everyone listens to music, thus making music so important to culture as a whole.

YouTube Preview Image

年表:

  • 1960s – Inspired by Western acts such as the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, Group Sounds represented a confluence of genres, evolving Japanese kayoukyoku pop of the 50s into Japan’s first rock genre.
  • 1967 – Public Company Oricon formed. Oricon provides information on the Japanese music industry, and its charts are a definitive measure of popularity.
  • 1970s – Progressive rock movement moves away from original psychadelic rock movement.
  • 1978 – Yellow Magic Orchestra formed, pioneering the electropop genre in Japanese that will later heavily influence modern Japanese pop and dance.
  • 1980s – Japanese alternative and noise rock genres flourish. Japanese rock diverges into a myriad of styles including underground, punk, metal, and hardcore.
  • 1982 – X Japan founded, pioneering visual kei and popularizing power metal.
  • 1990s – Popular music sees rising use in other media such as film, anime, TV, drama, games, etc. Some bands that took root in the 80s achieve wild commercial success.
  • 1997 – The first Fuji Rock Festival held. It is followed by the openings of several other rock festivals.
  • 1999 – Glay holds a concert with 200,000 people in attendance: the largest ever in Japan.

External Links:

About the Fuji Rock Festival (Translation)

In order to traverse the premises one must walk. There are no cleanly maintained and paved roads. In fact, most sites are built on dirt or gravel. Naturally, if rain falls, the premises will be muddy. There are also no locations for everyone to take shelter from rain. Further, the throngs of guidance and information clerks that one may normally expect at concerts and events will not be present, nor will such guidance services. Many of the multiple stages will hold performances simultaneously, making it impossible to see everything. Furthermore, due to this and stage entrance regulation, sometimes one may not be able to see a preferred artist. There will be times when long lines for the portable toilets persist, and sometimes there will be no toilet paper. During congestion, going from the entrance gate to the Orange Court at the deepest part of the premises may take upwards of 30 minutes.

Naturally, live events are living things, so each stage may face its own speed-ups and delays, causing peoples’ schedules to collapse at times. Since over 200 artists are to perform in a period of 3 days, please consider that an anticipated performer may hurriedly cancel. Also, when the executive office comes upon difficulties in management and judgment, management rules may be revised regardless of announcement time and method. Of course we will exhaust the best of our efforts in order to prevent such messes as rule changes and cancellations, however should they occur, there will be no compensations such as ticket refunding.

For this festival we discard the notion of coming with the ideas of “Selfish Convenience” or “Leave it to Others” and instead hold together the ideas of “Do It Yourself”, “Cooperation”, and “Respect for Nature.”

Although this festival is far removed from the city lifestyle, in the middle of nature, away from everyday life, is a place where one can freely enjoy music in one’s own style. A riveting atmosphere and passion is here: one that can only be experienced by coming, and cannot be expressed by mere words.

Despite the minimal rules, during the festival we offer a place where everyone can enjoy the festival in whatever style they please. By combining everyone’s powers, let’s greatly enjoy the festival. Naturally, we of the staff have created and now offer this to you with all our belief in the power of music.

Oricon Style Homepage

  • Japanese entertainment news, including rankings of CD albums and singles

X Japan Homepage

  • Famous speed metal band

2009 Fuji Rock Festival Homepage

  • This year’s Fuji Rock Festival

This Entry Contributed by: William He

Rock Music

English

日本にはロック音楽が1960年代から始まりました。ビートルズやローリングストーンズなどのバンドの影響で日本の歌謡曲がロックに変えました。ロックが日本に長い間あったけど、不景気にロックの人気が突然に上がりました。その上、不景気に音楽が様々なメヂアに出て来ました。例えば、ポップ音楽がアニメやドラマのテーマソングになったことがありました。その理由で、日本のエンタメ文化が大分に音楽に関われました。

若者に就いて音楽が自分のことを映しているから、音楽は大勢なサブカルチャーな一部です。例えば、アニメおたくは好きなアニメのテーマソングを聞いています。もちろんアイドルのファンはアイドルの曲を聞いているし、スタイルも擬します。移動労働からひきこもりまで皆が音楽を聞いているから、音楽がそんなにカルチャーに就いて重要です。

YouTube Preview Image

年表:

  • 1960年代 - ビートルズやローリングストーンズなどの西洋音楽の影響でグループサウンズが1950年代の日本歌謡曲から生まれた。グループサウンズは日本の初ロックジャンルだった。
  • 1967年 - 株式会社オリコンが作った。オリコンは日本音楽のデータを集めて、チャートでバンドをランキングしている。
  • 1970年代 - プログレシブロックの変革がuサイケデリックロックから離れた。
  • 1978年 - YMOが作った。YMOの影響でエレクトロポップが人気なジャンルになった。
  • 1980年代 - オルタナティブロックやノイズロックが人気なジャンルになった。それで、ロックの中に色んなジャンルがうまれた。たとえばハードコアやパンクやヘヴィメタルなどのジャンルが生まれた。
  • 1982年 -エックスジャパンが作った。エックスジャパンはヴィジュアル系の中で魁した。
  • 1990年代 - ポップミュウジックがほかのメディアで使うことが増えた。そして1980年代生まれたバンドがもっと人気になった。
  • 1997年 - フジロックフェスティバルが始まった。それ以外に、色んなほかのロックフェスティバルが後で始まった。
  • 1999年 - GLAYのコンサートに二十万人が来た。それが日本の一番大きいなコンサートだった。

外部リンク:

フジロックフェスティバルに就いて

会場内の移動は徒歩です。きれいに整備された道等は無く、ほとんどの場所が土や砂利の上です。当然、雨が降れば会場内のいたる所がぬかるみます。来場者全員が雨宿りできる場所もありません。通常の「コンサート」や「イベント」の様に係員が大勢いて事細かに案内、誘導等をすることもありません。会場内にある複数のステージはほとんどが同時進行し、出演者を全て観ることも不可能ですし、ステージによっては入場規制がかかり、観たいアーティストが観れない場合もあります。会場内の仮設トイレは長時間並ぶこともあるし、紙が無くなる場合もあります。混雑している場合は入場ゲートから一番奥のオレンジコートまで30 分以上かかることもあります。

当然LIVEは生き物ですので各ステージの時間が早まったり、遅れたりして、皆さんが事前に立てたスケジュールが崩れてしまうこともあります。3日間で 200近いアーティストが出演することもあり、不慮のアクシデントにより、お目当ての出演者が急遽キャンセルになってしまう場合も考えられます。また、事務局が運営などに支障をきたすと判断した場合、その告知時期・方法に関わらず運営上のルールを変更する場合もございます。もちろん、この様なことが起こらないように最善の努力を尽くしますが、もしこの様なキャンセルや運営上のルール変更があってもチケットの払い戻し等の対応は一切行いません。

このフェスティバルに来場される方は「自分勝手」「他人任せ」という言葉は捨てていただき、「Do It Yourself」「助け合い」「自然を敬う」という心と共に来場していただきます。

こんな都会生活とかけ離れたフェスティバルではありますが、日常の生活から離れ、「大自然」の中、自由なスタイルで「音楽」を楽しめる場所がそこには存在します。この場所に来なければわからない、言葉には表せない素晴らしい空間と感動があります。

最低限のルールは存在しますが、このフェスティバルの期間中、皆さんが思い思いのスタイルでこのフェスティバルを楽しんでいただける場を提供いたします。皆さんで力を合わせ、このフェスティバルをおおいに楽しみましょう。もちろん、われわれスタッフ一同、音楽の力を信じて全力で創り上げていきます。

オリコンスタイルホームペイジ

  • 日本エンタメニュース、それでCDシングルランキングとCDアルバムランキング

X Japan ホームペイジ

  • 有名なスピードメタルバンド

2009フジロックフェスティバルホームペイジ

  • 今年のフジロックフェスティバル

寄稿者: ウイリアム・へ

Original Ijime Article (please click for full-size)

Women’s Issues

Japanese

I’m studying essayist Junko Sakai’s best selling essay, Howl of the Loser Dogs. I became interested in Sakai’s work five years ago, when I read about her book in an American newspaper. In her book, Sakai uses the term “loser dog” or makeinu to describe women over 30 who are unmarried and don’t have any children. This is seen as unnatural in traditional Japanese society, which brings up women to believe that their greatest happiness lies in being married and raising children. However, nowadays in Japan more and more women are continuing to work into their 30s and delay marriage, or even refrain from getting married at all. Japan’s current “childless society,” a result of its near zero-growth birth rate, is often blamed on the country’s unmarried women. In her essay, Sakai criticizes these traditional ways of thinking about women. She believes that women can be happy even if they do not get married or raise children.

I want to see past the stereotypes commonly associated with Japanese women, and find out how they are truly living their lives. Women in today’s Japan are concerned with such issues as whether it is more important to focus on marriage or a career. As Japanese society gradually changes, so too will the standing of women in society change as well. Therefore, I believe that Sakai’s essay is a pertinent topic of interest for modern Japanese society, and for anyone interested in studying it.

YouTube Preview Image

Timeline

• 1966: Junko Sakai is born in Tokyo
• 1985: Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law is passed
• 2000: Sex and the City television show begins satellite broadcast in Japan
• 2003: Sakai’s Makeinu no Toboe (Howl of the Loser Dogs) essay is published in Japan
• 2004: The word “makeinu” becomes one of the top ten winners in the annual Japanese “Prize for New and Popular Words”
• 2005: Rika Kayama’s Kekkon ga Kowai (Marriage is Frightening) book is published in Japan
• 2008: Makeinu no Toboe television drama broadcast in Japan

Linkography

from Junko Sakai’s book Howl of the Loser Dogs (pgs. 193, 197):

There is a certain stock phrase that really stabs at the heart of any unmarried woman over 30 when she hears it. No matter how beautiful, smart, stylish, rich, or successful at her career she is, if a single woman hears someone utter, “You certainly can’t be very happy as a woman,” she is unable to come up with a response to this.

Single women are considered to be unhappy as women because they are not married, myself included. They are blind to the criticism that “they are unhappy as women,” and that’s why they remain single.

As for my current lifestyle, my job is fun and I have a lot of good friends. Since I get to eat the things I like, read the books I like, and go to my favorite places, I am first of all happy as a human being. However, I sort of understand that “happiness as a human being” seems like giving up on one’s “happiness as a woman” to the rest of the world for some reasons.

“Japanese Women Live, and Like It, On Their Own” (Washington Post, 2004)

Newspaper article about Junko Sakai’s Howl of the Loser Dogs and the increase of unmarried women in Japan
酒井順子の「負け犬の遠吠え」と日本に未婚女性の増について新聞の記事

” ‘Loser Dogs’ and ‘Demon Hags’: Single Women in Japan and the Declining Birthrate ” (Oxford UP, 2006)

Review of Howl of the Loser Dogs that contrasts it with 2004’s Women who are Becoming Demon Hags
「負け犬の遠吠え」を批評して「鬼婆化する女達」(2004年)と対比したエッセイ

酒井順子著作のページ

Japanese webpage about Sakai’s various published works, including Howl of the Loser Dogs
酒井のさまざまな著作について日本のページ、「負け犬の遠吠え」を含む

Entry Contributed by Megan Locke